HEALTH CARE INFORMATICS – An Interdisciplinary Approach, review

A review of Health Care Informatics – An Interdisciplinary Approach – Englebardt, Nelson

Enclosed are topics from each chapter that were significant to me. I don’t know how well the graphics and colors transmit when pasted: HEALTH CARE INFORMATICS – An Interdisciplinary Approach Chapters 1-5 Chapter 1 focuses on Major Theories Supporting Health Care Informatics. Although several theories are listed in this chapter, I am defining information regarding the “diffusion of innovation theory.” This theory was developed by Everett Rogers to explain how individuals and communities respond to new ideas, practices, or objects in 1995. In addition, this theory is defined as, “the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.” This theory provides a key role to health care informatics specialists as they assist others and organizations to maximize the benefits of automation with the technology. Five groups of classifications based on their response to change are defined as follows: 1) Innovators: the first 2.5% of the individuals within the system who are comfortable with uncertainty and above average in their understanding of complex technical concepts; 2) Early Adopters: the next 13.5% of individuals in the organization who are discreet with their adoption of the new change and are powerful because of their potential to be key leaders for the new idea. 3) Early Majority: the next 34% of individuals who are willing to adapt, but not to lead. 4) Late Majority: the next group of 34% that will eventually adapt to the new idea through peer pressure, but not because they agree with the idea. 5) Laggards: the final 16% of the individuals are resistant to change and come around because there is no other alternative. This theory and definition can be key to various areas of the health care continuum. Chapter 2 outlines, “Computer, Information, and Health Care Informatics Literacy.” The chapter identifies Health informatics literacy as, the study of how health data, information, knowledge, and wisdom are collected, stored, processed, communicated, and used to support the process of health care delivery to clients and for providers, administrators, and organizations involved in the health care delivery. I prefer the visual perspective of how health care intersects. HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS INFORMATION SCIENCE: WHAT IS IT? Chapter 3 “Understanding Databases” This chapter has a plethora of new terminology to grasp. I am going to focus on the anatomy (fields, records, tables). A database needs to be divided into the proper terms. First, a field is a vertical column in a database. It contains data that represent the same characteristic for all of the records. An example of a FIELD NAME or column heading could be Last Name. The horizontal data in the database represent records. In addition, the record contains the different pieces of data belonging to a given entity. The record is made up of a bunch of fields. A table consists of all the records. By structuring, the data in fields and records in a table makes it possible to manipulate and/or select records or fields based on specific data elements in the field. The following is an example created in Excel: ID NAME FIRST MIDT PROJ EXAM FINAL 123-43-3455 CARD SAM 65 70 67 67.3 124-77-8900 HITE HOE 87 75 90 84.6 123-87-8977 NUTCH JAME 85 90 95 90.5 123-56-7655 ROBB MIKE 85 80 90 85.5 127-89-6655 TWATE PAT 95 98 87 85.8 123-43-6677 WREN TOM 90 95 90 91.5 AVERAGES 84.5 84.66667 86.5 84.2 Chapter 4 “Supporting Administrative Decision Making” An important system term named within this chapter is decision support system. Decision support system (DSS) is defined as an interactive flexible, and adaptable computer-based information system (CBIS) that is specifically developed for supporting decision making related to the solution of a particular problem by utilizing data and easy user interface (UI) The components contain: User interface ; facilitates communication between the executive and the DSS ; Model manager ; accesses the collection of available models ; Model library ; includes a variety of statistical, graphical, financial, and “what if” models ; Databases ; provide clinical and financial data needed for decisions An important conclusion to DSS use in the decision-making process is to remember, DSSs are not immune to the environmental influences that influence the entire industry. In addition, with the growth in health care technology, it is very difficult to stay current with changes without a multidisciplinary support of team members within the organization. Chapter 5 “Supporting Clinical Decision Making” The processes and outcomes of care can be improved with optimal clinical decision-making. Clinical decision-making is invaluable at all levels of the health care system. A clinical decision support decision is an automatic DSS, which mimics the human decision-making and can facilitate clinical diagnostic process, promote the best of practices, assist with the development and adherence to guidelines, facilitate processes for improvement and prevention of errors. Clinical decision-making is the core to promote “best of practice.” This system characterization is valuable because it provides comprehensive examination of how humans make decisions. Other systems are outlined and defined, but this one was invaluable for me to remember and use.

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3 Responses to “HEALTH CARE INFORMATICS – An Interdisciplinary Approach, review”

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